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CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing


The application of numerical control technology has made qualitative changes in the traditional manufacturing industry, especially in recent years. The development of microelectronic technology and computer technology has brought new vitality to NC technology. Numerical control technology and numerical control equipment are the important basis of each country’s industrial modernization.

Numerical control machine tool is the mainstream equipment of modern manufacturing industry, the necessary equipment of precision machining, is the embodiment of the technical level of modern machine tool, the important symbol of the technological level of modern machinery manufacturing industry, is related to the national economy and people’s livelihood, the strategic material of national defense cutting-edge construction. Therefore, the industrially developed countries in the world have taken significant measures to develop their own numerical control technology and industry.

CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing
CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing

CNC is the abbreviation of English Computer Numberical Control, meaning “computer data control”, simply said is “numerical control machining”, in the Pearl River Delta area, people called “computer gong”.CNC Turning Machine Parts

Numerical control machining is an advanced machining technology in today’s mechanical manufacturing, which is an automatic machining method with high efficiency, high precision and high flexibility. It is to process the workpiece CNC program input to the machine tool, the machine tool under the control of these data automatically process the workpiece in line with people’s wishes, in order to make wonderful products.

Numerical control machining technology can effectively solve such as mold complex, precision, small batch of changeable processing problems, fully adapt to the needs of modern production. Vigorously developing numerical control processing technology has become an important way for our country to accelerate economic development and improve the ability of independent innovation. At present our numerical control machine tool use more and more common, can master the numerical control machine tool programming, it is an important way to give full play to its function.

CNC machine tool is a typical mechanical and electrical integration products, it sets microelectronics technology, computer technology, measurement technology, sensor technology, automatic control technology and artificial intelligence technology and other advanced technology in one, and closely combined with mechanical processing technology, is a new generation of mechanical manufacturing technology equipment.

The composition of CNC machine tools

CNC machine tool set machine tool, computer, motor and drive, dynamic control, detection and other technologies as one of the automation equipment. The basic composition of CNC machine tool includes control medium, CNC device, servo system, feedback device and machine tool body

  1. Control medium

The control medium is the media that stores all the action tool relative to the workpiece position information required by NC machining, and it records the parts processing program. Therefore, the control medium refers to the information carrier that the parts processing information is transmitted to the NC device. There are many forms of control media, it varies with the type of CNC device, commonly used punch tape, punch card, tape, disk, etc. With the development of numerical control technology, punch tape, punch card tends to be eliminated, and the use of CAD/CAM software in computer programming, and then through the computer to communicate with the numerical control system, the program and data directly to the numerical control device method is more and more widely used.

CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing
CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing
  1. Numerical control device

Numerical control device is the core of numerical control machine tools, people compare to the “central system”. Modern CNC machine tools all use computer numerical control device CNC. Numerical control device includes input device and central processing unit (CPU) and output device, etc. Numerical control device can complete information input, storage, transformation, interpolation operation and realize various control functions.

  1. Servo system

The servo system is a driving component that receives the instructions of the NC device and drives the movement of the machine tool executive mechanism. Including spindle drive unit, feed drive unit, spindle motor and feed motor, etc. When working, the servo system receives the instruction information of the CNC system, and compares it with the position and speed feedback signals according to the requirements of the instruction information, drives the moving parts of the machine tool or the executing parts, and processes the parts that meet the requirements of the drawings.

  1. Feedback device

The feedback device is composed of the measuring element and the corresponding circuit, its function is to detect the speed and displacement, and feedback the information back to form a closed-loop control. Some CNC machine tools with low precision requirements and no feedback device are called open-loop systems.

  1. Machine tool body

Machine tool body is the entity of CNC machine tool, is to complete the actual cutting mechanical part, it includes bed, base, table, bed saddle, spindle, etc.

The characteristics of CNC processing technology

CNC machining technology also follows the cutting rules of mechanical processing, and the processing technology of ordinary machine tools is roughly the same. Because it is the computer control technology applied in mechanical processing of a kind of automatic processing, so it has the characteristics of high processing efficiency, high precision, processing technology has its own unique, the process is more complex, the work step arrangement is more detailed and thorough.

CNC machining technology includes the selection of cutting tool, the determination of cutting parameters and the design of cutting process route. CNC machining technology is the foundation and core of numerical control programming, only reasonable technology, in order to write high efficiency and high quality numerical control program. The criteria for measuring the quality of a NC program are: the least processing time, the least cutting tool loss and the best result of the workpiece.

CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing
CNC machining technology for high-end precision manufacturing

Numerical control machining process is a part of the overall machining process of the workpiece, or even a process. It should cooperate with other processes before and after each other, in order to ultimately meet the assembly requirements of the overall machine or mold, so as to process qualified parts.CNC Milling Parts Machining

Nc machining process is generally divided into rough machining, rough Angle cleaning machining, semi-finishing machining and finishing.

The process of machining a part with CNC

  1. Analyze the parts drawing and understand the general situation of the workpiece (geometric shape, workpiece material, process requirements, etc.)

2, determine the CNC machining technology of parts (processing content, processing route)

  1. Necessary numerical calculation (calculation of coordinates of base points and nodes)
  2. Write the program list (different machine tools will be different, follow the manual)
  3. Program verification (input the program into the machine tool and conduct graphic simulation to verify the correct programming)

6, the workpiece processing (good process control can save time and improve the quality of processing)

7, workpiece acceptance and quality error analysis (inspection of the workpiece, qualified into the next. Unqualified through quality analysis to find out the cause of error and correction methods).

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