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Sheet Metal Fabrication Process And Cost Analysis

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According to the basic fabrication methods of sheet metal parts, such as material cutting, bending, stretching, forming, welding. This article discusses the process requirements that need to be paid attention to for each fabrication method.

Overview of Sheet Metal Fabrication

Sheet metal is a comprehensive cold working process for metal and some non-metallic thin plates (usually below 6mm),Its obvious feature is that the thickness of the same part is the same.

Overview of Sheet Metal Fabrication

Sheet metal fabricationmethod

Non-mold fabrication: through the number of punching, laser cutting, shearing machine, folding machine, riveting machine and other equipment for sheet metal fabrication process, generally used for sample production or small batch production, the cost is high.

Mold fabrication: Through a fixed mold, sheet metal fabrication, generally have blanking die, forming die, mainly used for mass production, low cost.

Sheet metal fabrication process

Blanking

Bending

Welding

Blanking

Mainly digital fabrication and laser cutting. Numerical punching refers to the use of CNC punching machines for fabrication, with a thickness range of cold rolled and hot rolled plates ≤ 3mm, aluminum plates ≤ 4mm, and stainless steel ≤ 2mm.

Punching requires a minimum size, which is related to the shape of the hole, material properties, and thickness. Laser cutting is processed using laser flight cutting, with a thickness range of ≤ 20mm for cold-rolled and hot-rolled plates, and ≤ 10mm for stainless steel. Its advantages are large thickness of processed sheet metal, fast cutting speed of workpiece shape, and flexible fabrication; The disadvantage is that it cannot be processed into shape, and mesh components should not be processed in this way, as the fabricationcost is high.

Bending

A bent part has a minimum bending radius. When the material is bent, the outer layer is stretched in the rounded area and the inner layer is compressed. When the material thickness is constant, the smaller the internal bending radius, the more severe the stretching and compression of the material; When the tensile force of the outer layer exceeds the limit of the material, fracture and fracture occur.

Sheet Metal Fabrication Process And Cost Analysis

welding

Mainly electric arc welding and gas welding Arc welding is flexible, mobile, and widely applicable, allowing for full position welding; The equipment used has the advantages of simplicity, good durability, and low maintenance costs. But the labor intensity is high and the quality is not stable enough, depending on the operator’s level. Suitable for welding carbon steel, low alloy steel, and non ferrous alloys such as copper and aluminum with a thickness of 3mm or more.

The temperature and properties of the gas welding flame can be adjusted. Compared to the heat source of electric arc welding, the heat affected zone is wider, and the heat is not as concentrated as the arc. The productivity is low, and it is applied to the welding of thin-walled structures and small parts. It can weld steel, cast iron, aluminum, copper and its alloys, hard alloys, etc.

welding

Material selection

The materials commonly used in sheet metal fabrication include cold-rolled sheet metal (SPCC), hot-rolled sheet metal (SHCC), galvanized sheet metal (SECC, SGCC), copper (CU), brass, red copper, beryllium copper, aluminum sheet metal (6061, 6063, hard aluminum, etc.), aluminum profiles, and stainless steel (mirror, brushed, and misted). Depending on the product’s purpose and material selection, it is generally necessary to consider the product’s purpose and cost.

MaterialThickness/mmMaterial SurfaceDescribe
Cold rolled sheet SPCC0.8/1.0/1.5/20/2.5/3 0/40/5.0/6.0Smooth surfaceIt is generally used for cold-rolled carbon steel sheet and steel strip, mainly used for electroplating and painting parts, low cost, easy to form.
Hot rolled plate Q2350.8/1.0/1.5/20/2.5/3 0/40/5.0/6.0Smooth surfaceAlso with electroplating, paint parts, low cost, but difficult to form, mainly with flat parts.
Galvanized sheet SGCC0.8/1.0/1.5/20/2.5/3 0/40/5.0/6.0Smooth surfaceThe base material is a general cold-rolled steel coil, which becomes a electroplating product after degreasing, pickling, electroplating and various post-treatment processes in the continuous electrogalvanizing production line.
Stainless steel 2010.8/1.0/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0/4.0/5.0/6.0Mist 2B/Brushed/MirrorLow cost, containing high component manganese to increase ductility, commonly used in industrial use of industrial grade stainless steel, such as iron Windows, iron doors and so on
Stainless steel 3040.8/1.0/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0/4.0/5.0/6.0Mist 2B/Brushed/MirrorOne of the most widely used stainless steel, because it contains touch, it is richer than steel containing lattice corrosion resistance, heat resistance, with very good mechanical properties, no heat treatment hardening phenomenon, no elasticity.
Stainless steel 3160.8/1.0/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0/4.0/5.0/6.0Mist 2B/Brushed/MirrorThe high content of the rub makes the corrosion resistance better, more resistant to corrosion, with chloride corrosion resistance, more robust. Mainly used in food industry and surgical equipment, high-priced POTS and pans.
Aluminum plate 1060H241.0/1.2/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0Smooth/brushedIt has excellent forming characteristics, high corrosion resistance, good weldability and electrical conductivity.
Aluminum plate 30031.0/1.2/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0Smooth/brushedFormability, welding, corrosion resistance are good, for fabrication needs to have good formability, corrosion resistance and good weldability parts.
Aluminum plate 50521.0/1.2/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0Smooth/brushedIt has anti-fatigue strength, high plasticity and corrosion resistance, can not be strengthened by heat treatment, good plasticity when semi-cold hardening, low plasticity when cold hardening, good corrosion resistance, good weldability, poor machinability, and polishing.
Aluminum plate 60611.0/1.2/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0Smooth/brushedMedium strength, good corrosion resistance, weldability, good oxidation effect. It is widely used in various industrial structural parts requiring certain strength, weldability and high corrosion resistance.
Copper plate H621.0/1.2/1.5/2.0/2.5/3.0Smooth surfaceIt indicates that ordinary brass with an average copper content of 62% has good mechanical properties, easy plastic fabrication , easy electric control, painting, and can be used for a variety of stressed parts manufactured by deep drawing and bending.

Sheet metal cost estimation

Sheet metal cost composition:Material costs, fabrication costs, standard parts and accessories costs, packaging costs, transportation, tax rates, management fees, profits, etc.

Cost of materials

Net material cost + material loss 10%-20% according to drawing requirements

Material price reference

Material namePrice (Yuan /kg)
Q235 (SPCC)6
45# plate6
Stainless steel (304)30
201 stainless steel plate14
Mirror stainless steel plate25
SUS416 stainless steel plate40
2A11 aluminum sheet40
6061 aluminum sheet30
Bakelite (phenolic resin)25
White polyformaldehyde sheet (POM)30
Black polyformaldehyde sheet (POM)30
Polytetrafluoroethylene140

Process cost

Laser cutting:Calculated according to the actual cutting length of the parts.

Material thicknessLaser (yuan/m)Punch (yuan/piece)
130.3
1.2-1.540.3
250.3
360.3
480.4
5100.5
6120.6
8150.8
10181

Numerical control punch

According to the calculation of 200 yuan per hour, the special mold needs to include the mold customization fee of about 1500 yuan -3000 yuan.

Bending

Calculated by hour: 150 yuan/hour. Calculated based on the number of bending blades, as shown in the table below:

Plate thicknesslengthprice
T≤3.0L≤6001
T≤3.0600<L≤20002
T≤3.01000<L≤20006
T≤3.02000<L≤300010
T≤3.0L≥300020

tongman

By hour: 50 yuan/hour.

Calculate 0.5 yuan per piece according to the number of sinking hole, pressing riveting, pulling riveting, tapping, reaming and drilling.

Sheet Metal Fabrication

weld

By the hour: 80 yuan/hour.

Calculated by length: 25 yuan/meter.

Spray treatment

Indoor powder is calculated at 30 yuan/square meter;

Outdoor powder is calculated at 50 yuan/square meter;

Small parts spraying not less than 1 yuan/piece (less than 0.01 square meters);

Standard parts and accessories fees

For products and parts purchased directly by the company from suppliers, pay attention to adding a 5%-15% agency fee when calculating.

Packing and transportation charge

The packaging costs and transportation costs incurred during the delivery of the product to the customer are determined according to the actual needs of the customer.

Administrative expenses

Expenses incurred by administrative departments for organizing and managing production and business activities account for about 10% of the total price.

profit

The determination of profit rate, according to the difficulty of fabrication technology, batch size, etc., can refer to 15%-25%.

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